Study: Heavy Metal Music Is Inclusive And Governed By Rules Of Etiquette

September 21, 2018

Forget wild and chaotic behavior, heavy metal music culture is inclusive and governed by etiquette and codes of conduct, according to new UCL (University College London) research.

After several years on the road, touring with a variety of metal bands from USA and Europe, UCL Anthropology PhD student Lindsay Bishop has found that the global heavy metal community is complex and transgenerational with elders passing on rules of etiquette, such as most pit behavior, to younger members.

Bishop, whose study is the first ethnography of its kind to focus on the significance of live heavy metal performance from the perspectives of both the audience and the musician, examines heavy metal from a strictly anthropological perspective. She has carried out extensive interviews and documented bands including FEAR FACTORY, 3TEETH, MORTIIS, PIG and COMBICHRIST. Footage captured while touring with industrial artist Jayce Lewis has just been released in his new video single with Universal Music.

The study finds that far from the popular perception of "angry teenage males," heavy metal is culturally inclusive, with a rich and varied audience — including many women and older adults — that embraces an array or religions, sexual orientations and political leanings.

Bishop's research will culminate in an open-source documentary, which will be made available via her web site, and a book exploring the capacity of musical performance to create metal communities that have sustained through several generations and have now spread across the globe. Her headline findings include:

Mosh pit etiquette

The research finds that older generations of metal fans pass on mosh pit etiquette and behavior to newcomers and younger generations to ensure an environment of "controlled chaos." This includes an implicit understanding that the mosh pit is voluntary, that those who fall over should be picked up immediately and if someone is hurt they are taken to the bar by the person responsible.

Participants from Bishop's fieldwork comment:

"When somebody goes down, you get them straight back up: 'You all right, mate? All your earrings intact?' But it's like that in metal — its being in a huge club and you don't necessarily know everyone's name but you give each other a nod." – Anonymous A

"There is a kind of… not a chain as such, but guidance, if you like, a kind of etiquette of things. It is kind of unwritten." – Anonymous B

Bishop says: "Mosh pits, crowd surfing, circle pits in an abstract sense epitomize the metal community. The older generations teach mosh pit etiquette and newcomers learn that moshing is not a fight, it's a way to release tension and often create lasting bonds with people.

"Metal culture doesn't have a history of aggression towards mainstream culture that, for example, punk has become synonymous for. In metal culture, aggression is released through catharsis within the crowd."


Despite the perception of the heavy metal community as a "brutish rite of passage for teenage boys," Bishop says that, it is a "complex, inclusive and global community" that now encompasses several generations.

The metal community has evolved since its inception in the 1960s, and today women make up on average one-third of gig-goers and many older adults, families, disabled, LGBTQ people participate throughout the globe.

Bishop explains, however, that there is still work to be done to change perceptions: "While there's been a steady increase in women among the metal community, there is still a perception issue that might give young girls and women the impression it's not for them. When, in fact, women all over world are part of the metal community, notably in the South African country of Botswana, there is a community of 'Botswana Queens' that are smashing gender stereotypes through metal music."

Friendship & fandom

Traditionally, studies have focused on either the musicians performing on stage or the audience, but rarely has the collective experience between the two been addressed, particularly from a transgenerational perspective.

The metal community is far reaching and today, in the wake of the digital revolution, bands have evolved their approach to producing music. More emphasis is placed on touring and connecting with the audience than ever before. Thanks to social media, gig-goers and performers are now forging long-lasting friendships.

The relationship between audience and performer is integral in the metal community, and there are a number of rituals that demonstrate this two-way dialog, such as physical connection with the audience, singers conducting the audiences singing, throwing drumsticks and other paraphernalia from stage, and the audience throwing t-shirts or gifts to the performers.

The relationship is also somewhat a consequence of the music industry and dwindling record sales, which has seen bands rely increasingly more on income through touring.

Bishop comments: "Touring is crucial if a metal band is to survive, and this relies on ticket and merchandise sales. Additionally, crowd funding is bigger than ever among the community, and in many ways this is positive as it cuts out the middle man and gives people a more direct connection to the musicians.

"Any band that can withstand the test of time gains a lot of respect. It would be virtually impossible to see a manufactured band in metal, because in this community, to be successful, you have to put in the time, graft and earn the respect of your audience."

The closest genre to classical?

In metal, the genre is united by many, many subgenres including black metal, power metal, nu-metal, speed metal, doom metal and now even Viking metal. The huge number of subgenres and the complex compositional structure of the music, have led to suggestions that classical and metal are closely related, however there is no direct evidence.

Bishop comments: "What we do know is that there are certainly correlations with classical. Many heavy metal bands are influenced by classical music and a number of metal musicians I have spoken to have studied classical music. There is a similar appreciation among the audience. In Russia, for example, it is common for older metal gig-goers to take sheet music to concerts as they would the opera."

Bishop is working on a diagram for the final study that will depict nuances of different metal genres, ranging from the rhythmic complexity of groove metal to the thick and heavy tempo of doom music and the speed and dissonance of thrash metal to the wild virtuosity of power metal.

Bishop concludes, reflectively: "I went to one metal gig where a 'doom' band played a single song that lasted for a solid 50 minutes. It was like funeral music. The venue was jam-packed and the audience was dead still. It was just a wall of vibration."

One participant described it as "a great stress reliever, particularly because you can stand there and almost feel your internal organs vibrating."

Find more on
  • facebook
  • twitter
  • reddit
  • email

Comments Disclaimer And Information

BLABBERMOUTH.NET uses the Facebook Comments plugin to let people comment on content on the site using their Facebook account. The comments reside on Facebook servers and are not stored on BLABBERMOUTH.NET. To comment on a BLABBERMOUTH.NET story or review, you must be logged in to an active personal account on Facebook. Once you're logged in, you will be able to comment. User comments or postings do not reflect the viewpoint of BLABBERMOUTH.NET and BLABBERMOUTH.NET does not endorse, or guarantee the accuracy of, any user comment. To report spam or any abusive, obscene, defamatory, racist, homophobic or threatening comments, or anything that may violate any applicable laws, use the "Report to Facebook" and "Mark as spam" links that appear next to the comments themselves. To do so, click the downward arrow on the top-right corner of the Facebook comment (the arrow is invisible until you roll over it) and select the appropriate action. You can also send an e-mail to blabbermouthinbox(@) with pertinent details. BLABBERMOUTH.NET reserves the right to "hide" comments that may be considered offensive, illegal or inappropriate and to "ban" users that violate the site's Terms Of Service. Hidden comments will still appear to the user and to the user's Facebook friends. If a new comment is published from a "banned" user or contains a blacklisted word, this comment will automatically have limited visibility (the "banned" user's comments will only be visible to the user and the user's Facebook friends).